The crowned woodnymph (Thalurania colombica) is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae.

Etymology

 Thalurania: Gr. Thalos= child or thalia= happiness, abundance and ouranos,  ouranios= heavenly, sky-blue heaven. colombica: Occurring or coming from the country of Colombia.

Description: ~10 cm (4 in). The male Green-crowned Woodnymph is green above with an iridescent green cap, throat, and breast. The rest of the underparts are deep iridescent blue. The tail is dark blue and forked. The female has green upperparts and mostly gray underparts with green on the sides of the breast and belly. The tail is dusky-bluish and square with white tips. The bill is slightly decurved and black. The male is similar to the male Violet-bellied Hummingbird, but are distinguished by larger size, forked tail, and a slightly decurved and black bill.

Taxonomy

The taxonomy of the species is confusing. The AOU currently lumps the violet-crowned woodnymph and the green-crowned woodnymph together here. It also includes the taxon hypochlora (emerald-bellied woodnymph) from south-western Ecuador and adjacent Peru here. All are sometimes considered distinct by other taxonomists.

Sub-species

Green-crowned Woodnymph (Thalurania colombica hypochlora), Gould, 1871. It also formerly included the Mexican woodnymph as subspecies.

Distribution

It is found in Belize and Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru

Habitat

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, and heavily degraded former forest at altitudes of 900 m and below.

Nesting

The female blue-crowned sapphire is fully responsible for nest building and incubation. She lays two white eggs in a single fiber plant nest on a horizontal branch 1 to 5 meters high. Incubation takes 15-19 days, and fledging takes another 20-26 days.

Feeding

The food of these species is nectar, taken from a great variety of flowers. Males forage in the canopy, where their food includes epiphytic Ericaceae and bromeliad plants, and they defend their flowers and shrubs in their foraging territories. The females stay in the bush. After feeding, both sexes focus on Heliconias. Like other hummingbirds, Blue-crowned Sapphires also eat insects and spiders as an essential source of protein.

Vocalization/ Song

https://www.xeno-canto.org/641726

References

  • Birdlife International Datazone. (http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/site)
  • Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
  • eBird. An online database of bird distribution and abundance (http://ebird.org/content/ebird/). eBird, Ithaca, New York.
  • Fjeldsa, J.; Krabbe, N. 1990. Birds of the high Andes. Apollo Books, Copenhagen.
  • Handbook Of Birds Of The World, Alive. (http://www.hbw.com/)
  • Hilty, S. L. & W. L. Brown. (1986). A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey